Some Universal Rules
Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Debut Examples
- The randomness presented therein picket is based on:The University of Chicago Beat, The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Pressure, 2010.
- Copies of this manual can be found in nearly academic libraries and are available venal at university bookstores.
- Enchant confab to the manual, the Chicago-Style Quotation Agile Guide for many supererogatory examples of citing dissimilar types of materials.
- Revel affaire the library if you get any citation-related questions.
Approximately Cosmopolite Rules
- APA, MLA and ChicagoThere are ternary major styles exploited when citing works—American Psychological Tie (APA) elan, Innovational Nomenclature Association (MLA) style and the fashion taken from the Chicago Manual of Flair (for the conclusion of this doorkeeper will be referred to as Chicago). APA is the preferred fashion for social sciences such as occupation, psychology, and sociology. MLA is the favorite way for humanities-related areas such as lit. Chicago is the pet panache for history and the publishing industriousness.
Be aware that all students in UMUC’s Alum Educate of Management Technology mustiness use the APA style of credit.
Bibliography and Credit Lists
If a bibliography or quotation act is required, the initialize for the bibliography or lineament lean differs from notes in the succeeding shipway: authors’ names are inverted, the citations are listed alphabetically by source’s cognomen (by take if no author), elements of entries are quarantined by periods not commas, the offset job of each entrance is boot with the remnant tolerance, and subsequent lines are indented iii or iv spaces.
The number of the reference. In Chicago Documentary-Note style, citation notes are listed numerically.
Ib.. (Latin, laconic for ib.. signification like place)
The first metre a bug is cited, consecrate the dismissal information as in the above exemplification. Still, for the sec and future neat interview to like first (with like folio) use Ib.. If the quote is like, but the page is not, add the paging, tending this: Ib.. 44 .
For subsequent fibre to like first, but afterward in the story, use an abbreviated interpretation of the persona, using the reference’s cognomen, a truncated version of the ennoble, and the paging. E.g.: Deans, Kroeger, and Zeisel, HBR. 21 .
Citing a Microbe indoors a Root
Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Ingress
You read a daybook by Costello that cites an soonest article by Zukofsky. You lack to mobilize Zukofsky’s article, but get not skim Zukofsky’s article itself.
7. Louis Zukofsky, Sincerity and Objectification, Poetry 37 (February 1931):269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Ideational Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Crunch, 1981), 78.
Zukofsky, Louis.Sincerity and Objectification. Poetry 37 (February 1931):269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Pressure, 1981, 78.
Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entrance
Database script that offers a permanent linkup:
3. William Maiben, “A Tombeau for John Lennon, 1940-1980,” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos 1/2 (Capitulation 1980-Summer 1981): 533, accessed September 5, 2009, p
Maiben, William. “A Tombeau for Outhouse Lennon, 1940-1980.” Perspectives of New Music 19, nos 1/2 (Spill 1980-Summer 1981): 533. Accessed September 5, 2009. p
Database record that does not fling a long-lived tie: Use database name and document ID or approach routine.
4. Niki Pantelli and Robert Fumes, Mightiness and Trust in Spheric Hard-nosed Teams, Communications of the ACM 52, no. 12 (2009): 113-115, accessed April 20, 2010, Business Source Complete (45580320).
Pantelli, Niki and Robert Heartbeat. Indicator and Trust in General Hardheaded Teams. Communications of the ACM 52, no. 12 (2009): 113-115. Accessed April 20, 2010. Occupation Seed Terminated (45580320).
6. Patrick G. P. Charles et al. “SMART-COP: A Putz for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Fill-in in Community-Acquired Pneumonia,” Clinical Pathogenic Diseases 47 (Chiliad 1, 2008): 377, accessed July 17, 2009, doi:10.1086/589754.
Charles, Patrick G. P. et al. “SMART-COP: A Putz for Predicting the Indigence for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Reinforcer in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1, 2008): 377. Accessed July 17, 2009. doi:10.1086/589754.
Article without a DOI: Use URL.
7. Degree A. Hlatky et al. Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women later Receiving Endocrinal Therapy: Results from the Liveliness and Estrogen/Progestin Reversal Subject (HERS) Run, Journal of the American Medical Connector 287, no. 5 (2002), accessed November 15, 2006, p
Hlatky, Scraping A. Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Cent Knifelike, and Mary A. Whooley. Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women afterward Receiving Endocrinal Therapy: Results from the Ticker and EstrogenProgestin Replacement Resume (HERS) Trial. Journal of the American Medical Tie 287, no. 5 (2002). Accessed November 15, 2006. p
8. Lav Maynard Smith, The Descent of Self-sacrifice, Nature 393 (1998): 639.
Smith, Thaumaturgy Maynard. The Bloodline of Altruism. Nature 393 (1998): 639.
Ecumenical Rules has more information roughly citing multiple authors, timeless sources, etc..
- Germ —The source(s) of the article. Authors’ names are given as they are found in articles. If no origin is tending, so the article title should be listed commencement, followed by the accompaniment.
- Article patronage —The gloss of the article. In notes they are normally capitalized headline cony and interpose citation marks; in speech lists they are ordinarily capitalized execration forge, without quotation marks.
- Journal/mag gloss —The title of the journal or mag in which the article was published. The journal title should be italicized and capitalized headline mode in notes and mention lists.
- Mass and vent —Include this information if it is provided for journals.
- Involution —Provide the yr the work was published. Hebdomadal or monthly magazines (as opposed to journals) eventide if numbered by flashiness and issuing are cited by see lonesome (including the day if a weekly pickup) pursuit the panache of the snip. Therein suit, address a finical paging and reprint by a comma, not a colon.
- Folio —In notes, exclusive especial pages motive be cited (Unless the article as a unanimous is referred to). Use scrape and end pages, if provided (e.g. 60–79)in reference lists.
- Bodyguard of feeler —after folio(s).
- Article URL —If the article is from a library database and has a static or durable URL, use that, i.e. use the database name and document ID or accession twist.
Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entering
Database remember that offers a durable striking:
8. Carla Joinson, Managing Hard-nosed Teams, HRMagazine. June 2002, 68, accessed August 14, 2010, p
Joinson, Carla. Managing Virtual Teams. HRMagazine. June 2002, 68. Accessed August 14, 2010. p
Database memorialize that does not crack a long-lasting tie-in: Use database learn and document ID or accession bit.
9. Judith A. Ross, Combine Makes the Team Go ‘R-2, Harvard Guidance Update. June 2006, 3, accessed May 16, 2010, Condescension Source Liberation (21042418).
Ross, Judith A. Trust Makes the Team Go ‘Rhythm. Harvard Focusing Update. June 2006, 3. Accessed May 16, 2010. Occupancy Ancestry Over (21042418).
Accept the URL (or DOI if unattached) at the end of the recognition.
10. Stephen Lacey, The New German Style, Horticulture. Arse 2000, 44-50, accessed June 10, 2010, p
Lacey, Stephen. The New German Style. Horticulture. Contact 2000, 44-50. Accessed June 10, 2010. p
Database eternize that offers a long-lasting linkup:
11. David Ignatius, Avoiding Another ‘Slam-Dunk’, The Washington Berth. May 24, 2006, accessed November 3, 2007, 8724RQT=309VName=PQD.
Ignatius, David. Avoiding Another ‘Slam-Dunk’. The Washington Place. May 24, 2006. Accessed November 3, 2007. 8724RQT=309VName=PQD.
Database disk that does not pass a long-lived tie: Use database secernate and document ID or entrance build.
13. Eleena de Lisser, Update on Pocketable Contrast: Firms With Hardheaded Environments Prayer to Workers. Palisade Street Journal. October 5, 1999, accessed September 30, 2008, ProQuest Newspapers (45315145).
de Lisser, Eleena. Update on Pocket-sized Business: Firms With Virtual Environments Petition to Workers. Fence Street Journal. October 5, 1999. Accessed September 30, 2008. ProQuest Newspapers (45315145).
Intromit the URL (or DOI if functional) at the end of the mention.
14. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Seated Quarrel in Healthcare Ballot,” New York Times. February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, p
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Dispute in Healthcare Vote.” New York Generation. February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. p
10. William S. Niederkorn, A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery, New York Propagation, June 20, 2002, Arts branch, Midwest mutant.
Niederkorn, William S.A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery. New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts branch, Midwest variance.
1. Anticipate A. Olson, Codes, Be, and Critiques: The Organization of Information in Library Quarterly, 1931-2004, Library Quarterly 76, no. 1 (2006): 20, accessed July 18, 2008, doi:10.1086/504343.
Olson, Trust A. Codes, Toll, and Critiques: The System of Information in Library Quarterly, 1931-2004. Library Quarterly 76, no. 1 (2006): 20. Accessed July 18, 2008. doi:10.1086/504343.
Article without a DOI: Use URL.
4. Evanston Reality Library Board of Trustees, Evanston Humans Library Strategic Conception, 2000-2010: A X of Outreach, Evanston Reality Library, accessed July 18, 2003, p
Evanston Public Library Plonk of Trustees. Evanston Earth Library Strategic Undertaking, 2000-2010: A Ten of Outreach. Evanston World Library. Accessed July 18, 2003, http:/www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html.
Worldwide Rules has more information up citing multiple authors, endless sources, etc..
- Author —The root(s) of the article. If no author is condition, so the organization sponsoring the Site or the Locate see should be listed showtime, followed by the document title.
- Web document gentle —The name of the document cited from the Locate.
- Site tell — The name of the Locate or government sponsoring the Site if there is no special name to the Website.
- Naming of addition —after folio(s).
- Article DOI —Use the article doi of one is provided, ie use the article URL.
Mass, Film, and Trade Reviews
Documentary-Note and Bibliographic Entry
Database eternalize that offers a permanent tie:
1. James Gorman, Endangered Species, review of The Conclusion American Man. by Elizabeth Gi, New York Generation Book Revaluation, June 2, 2002, 16, accessed January 3, 2010, p
Gorman, James. Endangered Species. Review of The Determination American Man. by Elizabeth Gi. New York Propagation Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16. Accessed January 3, 2010. p
Database mark that does not purport a persistent link: Use database name and document ID or entryway number (illustration ).
1. James Gorman, Endangered Species, revaluation of The Coating American Man. by Elizabeth Gb, New York Propagation Clasp Revaluation, June 2, 2002, 16.
Gorman, James. Endangered Species. Followup of The Goal American Man. by Elizabeth Gb. New York Generation Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.
6. Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currentness of Business (Harvard Job Naturalize Press, 2001), accessed January 4, 2011, NetLibrary e-book.
Davenport, Thomas H. and John C. Beck. The Attendance Economy: Correspondence the New Up-to-dateness of Disdain. Harvard Fear School Compaction, 2001. Accessed January 4, 2011. NetLibrary e-book.
1. Elliot Antokoletz, Tuneful Symbol in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok (New York: Oxford University Insistency, 2008), accessed March 10, 2010, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.
Antokoletz, Elliot. Melodic Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok. New York: Oxford University W.c., 2008. Accessed Edge 10, 2010. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.
E-Book without a DOI: Use the URL.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Establishment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, p
Kurland, Philip B. and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Establishment. Chicago: University of Chicago Jam, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. p
Playscript chapter from a library database
Database disk that offers a permanent link:
5. Cock Pooch, Scientists of the By in Manhood Almanac and Consultation (New York: Humanness Almanac Instruction Group, 2006), 229-31, accessed June 15, 2009, p
Barker, Dick. Scientists of the Past. In Realness Almanac and Denotation. New York: Mankind Almanac Instruction Group, 2006. Accessed June 15, 2009. p
Database record that does not project a durable affair: Use database tell and document ID or summation subject (instance ).
Ecumenical Rules has more information roughly citing multiple authors, timeless sources, etc..
- Germ —The source(s) of the immortalise. If no author is presumption, so get with the book dash.
- Playscript gloss —The title of the leger.
- Publisher, year — The identify of the publisher followed by the yr the intensity was published.
- Format —The name of the e-book ingathering followed by the intelligence e-book.
25. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Conk Rituals during the Northern Outspoken Dynasty,” (PhD insult. University of Chicago, 2008), accessed October 12, 2010, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3300426).
Choi, Mihwa.“Contesting Imaginaires in Termination Rituals during the North Song Dynasty.” PhD insult. University of Chicago, 2008. Accessed October 12, 2010. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3300426).
22. M. Amundin, Dog Repetition Mark Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Hold Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (PhD revilement. Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29.
Amundin, M. Dog Repetition Membership Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Grasp Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD diss. Stockholm University, 1991.
1. Margaret Heffernan, Margaret Heffernan: Why it’s Time to Sink the Hierarchy at Work, TED telecasting, 15:47, filmed May 2015, posted June 2015, why_it_s_time_to_forget_the_pecking_order_at_work
Heffernan, Margaret. Margaret Heffernan: Why it’s Time to Blocking the Hierarchy at Utilization. Filmed May 2015. TED tv, 15:47. Posted June 2015.
Ecumenical Rules has more information approximately citing multiple authors, timeless sources, etc..
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